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A Comparative Study On CBI And CID

Author- R. Rebecca Vasanthini Percy

Designation- B.Com L.L.B student, School Of Excellence In Law

Contact - 9080******

E-mail- REBS1175@GMAIL.COM


We live in a society of crimes where every minute or second someone is affected by another fellow being. Crimes can never be completely abolished as human beings were born and are living with sin and curse. Sin started when the first humans on Earth, Adam and Eve were created and they disobeyed God by eating the forbidden fruit. The first crime occurred on the planet when Cain the son of Adam killed his own brother Abel due to jealousy.

In today’s society we live in a fast moving world and one human being kills another to survive which can otherwise be termed as “survival of the fittest''. If there was no law and order or no superior command to stop fellow human beings from committing crimes then our world would have been in the state of chaos by now. Police officials, investigating officials, judges, magistrates, army officials exist to protect the well being of the country.

Due to the advancement of the governmental functions, it is highly impossible to run all its functions by its own and so the powers of the government are delegated to 3 organs. We have a three tier governmental mechanism, the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary to segregate the matters and to work in harmony. Likewise CBI is a central government body which controls the affairs of the Central issues and CID is a state run body which controls the state activity by controlling the crimes and maintaining law and order in the society.


The Central Bureau of Investigation is a Central governed agency of India. CBI specialises in investigating high profile cases, economic crimes, corruption cases etc. The headquarters of CBI is located in New Delhi. The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 gives power to the CBI, which is a non statutory body. There are numerous functions performed by CBI, few of them are:

  1. Investigating cases related to corruption and bribery.

  2. Investigating the misconduct of central government employees.

  3. Investigating heinous offences and crimes.

  4. Investigating certain matters of the state on their request.

  5. Maintaining crime records and disseminating criminal information.

There are also various branches/divisions of CBI. They are:

  1. Economic offences division

  2. Anti corruption division

  3. Administrative division

  4. Special crimes division

  5. Central forensic science laboratory etc.


The Criminal Investigation Department is responsible for the crimes and affairs happening in the state. They control and investigate the crimes in the state under the branch of State police service of India. There are various functions performed by the CID, they are:

  1. Investigating highway cases, robbery, dacoity etc

  2. Investigating cases relating to counterfeit coins, notes and stamps

  3. Dealing with heinous crimes happening in the state such as rape, murder, culpable homicide, kidnap etc.

  4. Maintaining crime records for the state.

As how CBI has various divisions and branches, CID also has many branches which are as follows:

  1. Anti narcotics cell

  2. Finger print bureau

  3. Anti human trafficking and missing person cell

  4. CB-CID


There are various differences between these 2 agencies which are as follows:

  • CBI is a central agency whereas CID is a state governing agency.

  • CBI stands for Central Bureau of Investigation whereas CID stands for Criminal Investigation Department.

  • CBI was established in the year 1941 whereas CID was established in 1902 under the British government’s recommendation.

  • The role of CBI carries on throughout the country and even abroad but CID is restricted to function only towards a particular state.

  • National and international crimes like scandals, economic crimes are dealt by CBI whereas CID deals with investigating riot, kidnapping, murder in a particular state.



CBI has solved strenuous cases and many high profile cases like Bhanwari Devi murder case, INX media case, Noida double murder case, Priyadharshini Mattoo murder case, Bhopal gas tragedy, 2G spectrum case, Indian coal allocation scam etc.


CID has solved many back breaking cases like Sattankulam custodial death case, Palghar lynching case, Death of IAS officer at Karnataka etc.


There has been a tremendous increase in the number of criminal activities happening each and everyday. CBI and CID both are investigating agencies and both stride towards maintenance of law and order. Even though there is a vast difference between CBI and CID, they both deal with controlling offences in the country and state. One agency cannot be lowered before another agency. The CBI and CID officers try their level best in solving the cases before them and protect the welfare of the country and state respectively.






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